Institute for Social and Economic Change

Working Paper: 540

Locating Married Women in Urban Labour Force:
How India is Faring in 21st Century

Jyoti Thakur
Reimeingam Marchang



Female workforce participation rate is a key indication of women's economic empowerment, as well as their agency at home and in the workplace. This paper highlights the complex nature of women’s labour force participation in Urban India with a focus on married women. Using unit level data of NSS quinquennial rounds and PLFS, firstly, the paper examines the prevalent gender gaps and changes over time in the urban market and secondly, pattern and trends of labour force participation of married women between 2004-05 to 2018-19 and later, a cross examination with marital status, age, education level, work status and occupation is investigated. Finally, the paper explores the activity engagement of women who are out of the labour force and its relation with education levels.


Working Papers