Institute for Social and Economic Change

Working Paper: 513

Infrastructure Led Livelihood: A Comparative Analysis
of Hill and Valley in Manipur

T Thangjahao Haokip
Marchang Reimeingam



Adequate availability and easy access to infrastructures have positive implications for people’s livelihood conditions. The study includes economic infrastructures such as road transportation, communication, and electricity. It adopts a multi-stage sampling technique. Based on the availability of infrastructures, three districts each were drawn from the hill and valley of Manipur. Better access to road transportation in the valley has resulted in the production of a larger quantity of agricultural products when compared to the hill, where available roads were mostly un-surfaced. Unreliable telecommunication services in remote areas of the hill isolated the people and were unable to draw the government’s attention. In the valley, usage of electricity was higher for commercial purposes due to the regularity of its supply that promotes their livelihood conditions. Consequently, the average income from the livelihood activities of the hill was lower than the valley. Therefore, adequate availability of infrastructure is needed for the sustainability of livelihood conditions.


Working Papers